Education as the “Recitation Script’

Ronald Gallimore and Roland Tharp (1992) educational psychologists who studied conditions in classrooms that influence learning, referred to this type of teaching as a recitation script and observed, “the predominant experience of American school children. Sitting silently, students read assigned texts, complete ‘ditto’ sheets, and take tests. On those rare occasions when they are encouraged to speak, teachers control the topics and participation” (p. 175)

The model of education seems deeply embedded….



Gallimore, R, & Tharp, R. (1992). Teaching mind in society: Teaching, schooling, and literate discourse.” In L. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology. (pp. 175-205). New York: Cambridge University Press.