Seven Principles of Good Instruction

Arthur Chickering and Stephen Ehrman (1996) concluded that while ICT-rich learning cannot occur by either technologists or educators working in isolation, the technology selected and used in learning environments can promote seven principles of good practice. Technology can

  • encourage contact between educators and students
  • encourage reciprocity and cooperation among students
  • facilitate active learning and performance as demonstration of new learning
  • be a venue for prompt feedback
  • allow students to spend time on meaningful cognitive tasks
  • communicate high expectations
  • respect diverse talents and ways of learning

In Chickering and Ehrman’s list, there is essential technology implicit, but the specifics of how that technology is configured and implemented requires both technologists’ and educators’ expertise; both are necessary, neither is sufficient.


Chickering, Arthur, and Stephen  Ehrmann. 1996. Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as  Lever.