Conceptualizing Technology in Education

As information and computer technology (ICT) has become more deeply embedded in curriculum and instruction, technology planning has become an essential part of school leadership. School leaders are expected to take steps to ensure students use technology for diverse learning activities, so infrastructure must be installed and managed, and teachers must be trained in its use and supported as they integrate it into instruction. School leaders play an obvious role in ensuring the decisions are appropriate for the classroom, aligned with established policy and procedure; and can be reasonably supported by the available resources. Because of the dynamic nature of this work, school leaders need on-going support and training, so they become effective and collaborative in this aspect of their work (Dexter, Richardson, & Nash, 2017; Millman, 2019). It is generally accepted that planning proceeds from goals which are articulated by school leaders; systems are developed and deployed to meet those goals, then the degree to which the goals have been met is established (Gülbahar, 2007). This approach to planning is applied to both plan for ICT used for instruction and ICT used for administrative purposes.


Dexter, S., Richardson, J., & Nash, J. (2017). Leadership for technology use, integration, and innovation. In M. Young & G. M. Crow (Eds.), Handbook of Research on the Education of School Leaders (2nd ed.) (pp. 202-228). Routledge.

Gülbahar, Y. (2007). Technology planning: A roadmap to successful technology integration in schools. Computers & Education, 49(4), 943–956.

Milman, N. B. (2019). School Leadership of a One-to-One Laptop Initiative. Journal of School Leadership,