Today, URL shortening services and quick response or QR code generation tools are widely available to internet users. While these are useful services when (for example) sharing links to your conference presentation materials with the in-person participants, they can easily be used by phishers for spoofing. Notice in the complete URL, you do have the entire domain that you can use to evaluate the link, that information is missing in the shortened URL or in the QR code. You can’t really be sure where you are going until you click the link or scan the code, and then it may be to late. As internet users see more and more shortened URLs (and all major tech companies are using their own services) and QR codes are appearing in more and more adverting campaigns, it is reasoned internet users will be more comfortable following links to dubious sites.