layers of school IT

An Example of Data

Data can become evidence only if it is reliable. Reliability is based on the degree to which the same observations can be made under similar circumstances but at different times, and also one the degree to which different measures of the same effect agree. Theory allows managers and leaders to make predictions about what they Read More

layers of school IT

Tacit Knoweldge

Philosopher and scientist Michael Polanyi used the term tacit knowledge to describe understanding that is implicit and difficult to state with precision. For this reason, tacit knowledge cannot be stated as an algorithm, so it cannot be downloaded to digital devices. According to Polanyi, tacit knowledge is necessary to frame a problem, to develop a Read More

layers of school IT

Are They Learning? How Do We Know?

I posted a tweet recently that seemed to motivate folks to engage. I posted: What if students learn, but can't perform on assessments? — Dr. Gary Ackerman (@GaryAckermanPhD) November 23, 2023 The responses to my tweet suggest there are some educators have not yet abandoned the platform, and those who remain are thoughtful about the Read More

layers of school IT

Three Types of Societies

Scholars have recently rediscovered the significant and active influence that information technology exerts on the nature of societies. They  generally differentiate three types of societies and have documented different types of interaction and cognition in each. Cultures with Primary Orality Cultures without writing are referred to as demonstrating primary orality, and communication in those cultures Read More

layers of school IT

Is Speech a Technology?

I recently made a seemingly obvious observation in a tweet: “Every technological innovation become obsolete.” (Yup, that is what I tweeted… I’m the worst copy editor of social media posts.) A follower (whom I also follow and with whom I occasionally interact) replied “Is speech a technology?” Realizing the response was to be too long Read More

layers of school IT

It Is Time for Metamodernism

Over my career, I have been a natural scientist; my undergraduate preparation was in science education. I spent many delightful hours in science labs gathering and interpreting data, and I was fortunate that my professors (in botany) included original research.   As a science and math teacher, my thinking and teaching was dominated by modernist Read More

layers of school IT

On Systems

All of the systems have common elements. By looking for these characteristics, and using these characteristics when studying the systems of interest, technologists, scientists, and engineers can more quickly solve problems and design solutions. Order. All systems are recognized by some sort of order, parts and boundaries can be recognized and measured. Order also gives Read More

layers of school IT

On Data

For more than 30 years, knowledge management has been organized around a hierarchy. According to the data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) model traced to Russell Ackoff in 1989, data comprises symbols representing the facts. Data becomes useful information as it answers questions. Information becomes knowledge as it is organized into generalizations and can be used to explain answers. Read More

layers of school IT

Vygotsky was Right

Alex Kozulin noted in the prologue to his book Vygotsky’s Psychology (1990), For Vygotsky, one’s psychology is the product of complex dynamics between the individual and his or her social environment, and new discoveries raise more questions that can only be understood using inclusive methods. For Vygtosky, learning is a social process.